Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants
Solar power continues to become a very important contributor for meeting energy needs in emerging economies. Achieving universal access, accelerating improvements in energy efficiency, and doubling the global share of renewable energy by 2030.
This system converts solar radiation directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect in a silent and clean process that requires no moving parts. The PV effect is a semiconductor effect whereby solar radiation falling onto the semiconductor PV cells generates electron movement. The output from a solar PV cell is DC electricity. A PV power plant contains many cells connected together in modules and many modules connected together in strings to produce the required DC power output.
1. Optimum power plant design
2. Project implementation including permits and licensing, selection and contracting of the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) company, power plant construction, and operations and maintenance (O&M).
3. Commercial and financing aspects
4. Land. Access to land is also a basic requirement for project development. Project land must be purchased or leased for longer than the debt coverage period; a minimum of 15–20 years is desirable, although a 40–50 year lease is often signed.
Land lease agreement(s). • Access agreements. • Planning/land use consents. • Building/construction permits. • Environmental permits (forestry, endangered species, EIA, etc.). • Social impacts (i.e., cultural heritage/archaeological sites, stakeholder consultations). • Energy permit. • Grid connection application. • Operator/generation licenses
5. permits and agreements are usually very long and differs from country to country. * Land lease agreement; * Site access permit; * Building permits; * Environmental permit; * Grid connection agreement; and * Operator/generation license.
6. Investment and funding requirements and the investment concept. This should include equity contribution amounts and sources, equity partner requirements and financing assumptions to be included in the financial model. • A project structure and risk-mitigation strategy. In many emerging markets, to make a project “bankable” (i.e., able to attract reasonably priced debt financing) it is typically necessary to secure credit enhancements, which can be either private (donation, letters of credit, escrow accounts) or governmental (sovereign guarantees).
7. PV technologies: • Crystalline Silicon (c-Si • Thin-film • Amorphous Silicon (a-Si). • Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). • Copper Indium Selenide (CIS). • Copper Indium (Gallium) Di-Selenide (CIGS/CIS). • Heterojunction with intrinsic thin-film layer (HIT).
8. Taxation: The U.S. investment tax credit provides owners of a project with a 30 percent tax credit on the capital expenditure of a solar PV project to offset against their tax liabilities. The United
After successfully completing this project participants will be able to:
- Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development
- Solar Power is good for the environment.
- Solar Electricity makes your home go off-the-grid.
- Solar Power can use underutilized land.
- Solar Power causes less electricity loss.
- Solar Power Improves Grid Security.
- Solar Power creates jobs and economic growth.
- Solar Power is a free source of energy.